About The Authors



Scott Spangler is an IBM Senior Technical Staff Member who has been researching knowledge base and data mining for the past 20+ years; he has been at the IBM Research Lab since 1996. In 1992, he won the prestigious “Boss” Kettering award for technical achievement. He currently works in IBM Almaden Services Research, designing and implementing new methods for data visualization and text mining.



Jeffrey Kreulen is Distinguished Engineer at the IBM Almaden Research Center. Since joining IBM in 1992, he has worked on multiprocessor systems design and verification, operating systems, systems management, Web-based service delivery, the science of services, integrated text and data analysis and its application in services delivery, social media, intellectual property, and life sciences.